Emerita_AA2017.jpg, 76K
What creature is this (Phylum, Subphylum, Class)?
(see more stunning photos by Arthur Anker)

(### NOTE: ZOOL250 is now taught by another instructor and has a new website.
This website will remain operational as an archival resource. ###)


Teaching Assistants:

  • Living Invertebrates, 1987
    Pearse, Pearse, Buchsbaum and Buchsbaum;
    Blackwell, Boston, MA; ISBN 0-86542-312-1
    (recommended readings from the text)

  • Zool 250 Laboratory Guide & Lecture Handouts 2017
    A.R. Palmer & R. Koss

Annotated Bibliography:
Lecture & Laboratory Study Materials:

  • View the entire classification of animals (to subclass) as in the course text or check out the classification of particular groups at ZooBank, or the Integrated Taxonomic Information System.

    ProtoDeutero.jpg, 13K     Browse the Tree of Life of animal phyla as followed in Zool 250 and review key characters defining major branches.

  • Having trouble remembering some of the material you saw in lab? Maybe the study images of prepared slides and dissections will help.

  • Still mulling over key concepts or processes discussed in lecture? Some entertaining and informative animations are available for review or self test.

  • Self-testing exams may help you prepare for lecture and laboratory exams.

  • Curious about the meaning of scientific names of animals or body parts? Search the table of Greek & Latin roots for clues.

Old Lecture Outlines & Notes:


(see also textbook reading assignments and cladogram of animal phyla)

sponge.jpg, 13K
Mon 9  Introduction: Why study invertebrates? (course preliminaries, outline)
Wed 11  Diversity, phylogeny, classification (outline)
      (Metazoa cladogram)
Fri 13  Key characters defining the Tree of Life (outline)
Mon 16  Kingdom Protista (outline 1, outline 2)
      (Protista cladogram, study images)
Wed 18  Origin of Metazoa; Porifera (I): Introduction (outline)
medusa.jpg, 23K
Fri 20  Porifera (II): Function and diversity (outline); Placozoa (outline)
      (Porifera cladogram, study images, animation)
Mon 23  Cnidaria (I): Introduction, tissues, cell types (outline)
Wed 25  Cnidaria (II): Diversity- Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa (outline)
      (Cnidaria cladogram & study images; Life cycle animations: Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa)
Fri 27  Cnidaria (III): Diversity- Anthozoa (outline); Ctenophora (outline)
      (Ctenophora cladogram & study images)
Mon 30  Bilateria: General characteristics (outline)
      (Excretory systems animation; some amusing perspectives on symmetry)

Wed 1  Protostomia and Deuterostomia (outline)
      (Metazoa cladogram)
polyclad.jpg, 4K
Fri 3  Platyhelminthes (I): Introduction, Turbellaria (outline + links)
      (Platyhelminthes cladogram & study images)
Mon 6  Platyhelminthes (II): Parasitic taxa (outline), Nemertea (outline)
      (Platyhelminthes cladogram & study images)
Wed 8  Aschelminthes (I): Overview (outline)
      (Aschelminthes cladogram & study images)
Fri 10  Aschelminthes (II): Diversity- Nematoda, Rotifera (outline), Other phyla (outline)
      (Aschelminthes study images)
Mon 13  Mollusca (I): Introduction & overview (outline)
      (Mollusca cladogram)
murex.jpg, 50K
Wed 15  Mollusca (II): Diversity- Minor classes (outline)
      (mollusc diversity study images)
      (view sample questions here)
Mon 27  Mollusca (III): Diversity- Gastropoda (outline)
      (Gastropoda study images)
      (Read Garstang's memorable poem: How the gastropod got it's twist)

cuttlefish.jpg, 25K
Wed 1  Mollusca (IV): Diversity- Bivalvia, Scaphopoda (outline)
      (Bivalvia study images; Particle feeding animations: filibranch, eulamellibranch )
Fri 3  Mollusca (V): Diversity- Cephalopoda (outline)
     (Cephalopoda study images; Squid swimming animation)
Mon 6  Metamerism; Annelida (I)- Polychaeta (outline)
      (Annelida cladogram & study images; Polychaete locomotion animation)
      (Try out the Rhyming key to polychaete families)
worm.jpg, 9K
Wed 8  Annelida (II): Oligochaeta (outline)
      (Annelida cladogram & study images; Earthworm locomotion animation)
Fri 10  Annelida (III): Hirudinea (outline)
Mon 13  More Worms: Echiura, Pogonophora, Sipuncula (outline)
      (More worms cladogram & study images)
Wed 15  Arthropod (I): Origins, Onychophora, Tardigrada (outline)
      (Onychophora cladogram & study image)
Peripatus.jpg, 19K
Fri 17  Arthropoda (II): Overview, exoskeleton and molting (outline)
      (Arthropoda cladogram)
Mon 20  Arthropoda (III): Limbs and muscles (outline)
      (Claw + limb animation)
Wed 22  Arthropoda (IV): Eyes, respiration and coeloms (outline)
crab.jpg, 5K
Fri 24  Arthropoda (V): Diversity, Introduction and Crustacea (outline, outline)
      (Crustacea cladogram & study images)
Mon 27  Arthropod (VI): Other subphyla (outline)
      (Arthropoda & Pterygota cladograms, other arthropod study images)
Wed 29  Arthropod (VI): Other subphyla (cont.) (outline)
      (Arthropoda & Pterygota cladograms, other arthropod study images)
Fri 31  Deuterostomia; Echinodermata (I): Overview, body plans (outline)
      (Echinoderm cladogram & study images)

CukeStar.jpg, 12K
Mon 3  Echinodermata (II): Skeleton, water-vascular system (outline)
      (Echinoderm cladogram & study images)
Wed 5  Echinodermata (III): Feeding, locomotion, development (outline)
      (Echinoderm cladogram & study images; Urchin feeding animation)
Fri 7  Lophophorates, Hemichordates (outline)
      (Deuterostome cladogram, study images)
Mon 10  Invertebrate chordates (outline)
      (Chordate cladogram & study images; Sea squirt feeding animation)
enteropneust.jpg, 4K
Wed 12  Deuterostome relations, The Tree of Life review (outline)
Fri 14  No Class (Good Friday)
        (0900, Pavilion Rows 24, 26, 28(Seats 1-25))
       (0900, BioSciences Z211)

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Copyright © 1997-2017 by A. Richard Palmer. All rights reserved.
(revised April 17, 2019)