BenthicInverts09, 210K
(A sampling of benthic invertebrates. How many phyla can you see?)


Teaching Assistants:

  • Living Invertebrates, 1987
    Pearse, Pearse, Buchsbaum and Buchsbaum;
    Blackwell, Boston, MA; ISBN 0-86542-312-1
    (recommended readings from the text)

  • Zool 250 Laboratory Guide & Lecture Handouts 2009
    A.R. Palmer & R. Koss

Annotated Bibliography:
Lecture & Laboratory Study Materials:

  • View the entire classification of animals (to subclass) as in the course text or check out the classification of particular groups at ZooBank, GenBank, or the Integrated Taxonomic Information Server.

    ProtoDeutero.jpg, 13K     Browse the Tree of Life of animal phyla as followed in Zool 250 and review key characters defining major branches.

  • Having trouble remembering some of the material you saw in lab? Maybe the study images of prepared slides and dissections will help.

  • Still mulling over key concepts or processes discussed in lecture? Some entertaining and informative animations are available for review or self test.

  • Self-testing exams may help you prepare for lecture and laboratory exams.

  • Curious about the meaning of scientific names of animals or body parts? Search the table of Greek & Latin roots for clues.
Bamfield Field Trip:

  • Want to see stunning marine invertebrates in their natural habitats? Consider going on the optional Reading-Week field trip to the Bamfield Marine Sciences Centre.
Royal Tyrrell Museum Field Trip:

  • Ever wonder what the earliest invertebrates that inhabited the earth looked like? Maybe the one-day field trip to see the Burgess Shale Invertebrates at the Royal Tyrrell Museum is for you.
    (Not offered 2009)


(see also textbook reading assignments and cladogram of animal phyla)

sponge.jpg, 13K
Mon 5  Introduction: Why study invertebrates? (course preliminaries, outline)
Wed 7  Diversity, phylogeny, classification (outline)
      (Metazoa cladogram)
Fri 9  Key characters defining the Tree of Life (outline)
Mon 12  Kingdom Protista (outline 1, outline 2)
      (Protista cladogram, study images, huge collection of images, great collection of video clips)
Wed 14  Origin of Metazoa; Porifera (I): Introduction (outline)
Fri 16  Porifera (II): Function and diversity (outline); Placozoa (outline)
      (Porifera cladogram & study images)
medusa.jpg, 23K
Mon 19  Cnidaria (I): Introduction, tissues, cell types (outline)
Wed 21  Cnidaria (II): Diversity- Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa (outline)
      (Cnidaria cladogram & study images)
Fri 23  Cnidaria (III): Diversity- Anthozoa (outline); Ctenophora (outline)
      (Ctenophora cladogram & study images)
Mon 26  Bilateria: General characteristics (outline)
      (some amusing perspectives on symmetry)
Wed 29  Protostomia and Deuterostomia (outline)
      (Metazoa cladogram)
Fri 31  Platyhelminthes (I): Introduction, Turbellaria (outline + links)
      (Platyhelminthes cladogram & study images)

polyclad.jpg, 4K
Mon 2  Platyhelminthes (II): Parasitic taxa (outline), Nemertea (outline)
      (Platyhelminthes cladogram & study images)
Wed 4  Aschelminthes (I): Overview and minor phyla (outline)
      (Aschelminthes cladogram & study images)
Fri 6  Aschelminthes (II): Diversity- Nematoda, Rotifera (outline)
      (Aschelminthes study images)
Mon 9  Mollusca (I): Introduction & overview (outline)
      (Mollusca cladogram)
Wed 11  Mollusca (II): Diversity- Minor classes (outline)
      (mollusc diversity study images)
murex.jpg, 50K
      (view sample questions here)
      (Optional field trip to the Bamfield Marine Sciences Centre)
Mon 23  Mollusca (III): Diversity- Gastropoda (outline)
      (Bivalvia study images)
      (Read Garstang's memorable poem: How the gastropod got it's twist)
Wed 25  Mollusca (IV): Diversity- Bivalvia, Scaphopoda (outline)
      (Cephalopoda study images)
Fri 27  Mollusca (V): Diversity- Cephalopoda (outline)
 Sipuncula (outline)
      (Sipuncula cladogram & study image)

worm.jpg, 9K
Mon 2  Metamerism; Annelida (I)- Polychaeta (outline)
      (Annelida cladogram & study images)
      (Try out the Rhyming key to polychaete families)
Wed 4  Annelida (II): Oligochaeta (outline)
Fri 6  Annelida (III): Hirudinea (outline)
Mon 9  More Worms: Echiura, Pogonophora (outline)
      (Echiura & Pogonophora cladogram & study images)
Wed 11  Arthropod (I): Origins, Onychophora, Tardigrada (outline)
      (Onychophora cladogram & study image)
crab.jpg, 5K
Fri 13  Arthropoda (II): Overview, exoskeleton and molting (outline)
      (Arthropoda cladogram)
Mon 16  Arthropoda (III): Limbs and muscles (outline)
Wed 18  Arthropoda (IV): Eyes, respiration and coeloms (outline)
Fri 20  Arthropoda (V): Diversity, Introduction and Crustacea (outline, outline)
      (Crustacea cladogram & study images)
Mon 23  Arthropod (VI): Other subphyla (outline)
      (Arthropoda & Pterygota cladograms, other arthropod study images)
CukeStar.jpg, 12K
Wed 25  Arthropod (VI): Other subphyla (cont.) (outline)
      (Arthropoda & Pterygota cladograms, other arthropod study images)
Fri 27  Deuterostomia; Echinodermata (I): Overview, body plans (outline)
      (Echinoderm cladogram & study images)
Mon 30  Echinodermata (II): Skeleton, water-vascular system (outline)
      (Echinoderm cladogram & study images)


enteropneust.jpg, 4K
Wed 1  Echinodermata (III): Feeding, locomotion, development (outline)
      (Echinoderm cladogram & study images)
Fri 3  Lophophorates, Hemichordates (outline)
      (Deuterostome cladogram, lophophorate & hemichordate study images)
      (9 AM - 4 PM, Z109 BioSciences Building)
Mon 6  Invertebrate chordates (outline)
      (Chordate cladogram & study image)
Wed 8  Retrospective: The Tree of Life (outline)

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Copyright (c) 1997-2009 by A. Richard Palmer. All rights reserved.
(revised April 28, 2009)