A. R. Palmer
Publications & Computer Programs

Smith & Palmer 1994
Marchinko & Palmer 2003
Palmer 2004 (submitted, not used)
Kraus-Nehring et al. 2010
Miyashita & Palmer 2014
Miyashita 2016
Kaji & Palmer 2017
Kaji et al. 2018 (submitted, not used)
Webster & Palmer 2019

     Brady's Beach & Pacific Ocean, Bamfield, British Columbia
    Home Research / Teaching People & Projects Publications Student Publications Asymmetry  
HighlyCited.jpg (Top ISI cites/year through Mar. 2020)       (link to citation metrics)      F1000.png (Papers highlighted on Faculty of 1000)
(Names in bold are Palmer lab members; * authorship alphabetical)

InvBiolCollage.jpg Palmer, A.R. 2021a.
So you have to teach invertebrate biology . . .
Invertebrate Biology 140(1): in press
(download from journal or request pdf from me)

NEW! Play the "Guess the Invert" puzzle from the cover of the 25 Anniversary Issue of Invertebrate Biology.


InvBiolCollage.jpg Palmer, A.R. 2021b.
Sex, camouflage, marvelous adaptations: A writing assignment that inspires.
Invertebrate Biology 140(1): in press
(download from journal or request pdf from me)

Dulichiella-AA.jpg Longo, S.J., W. Ray, G.M. Farley, J. Harrison, J. Jorge, T. Kaji, A.R. Palmer & S.N. Patek 2021.
Snaps of a tiny amphipod push the boundary of ultrafast, repeatable movement.
Current Biology 31, R116-R117.
(download from journal or request pdf from me)

MiyashitaJawless20.jpg Miyashita, T., P. Baddam, J. Smeeton, A.P. Oel, N. Natarajan, B. Gordon, Palmer, A.R., J.G. Crump, D. Graf & W.T. Allison 2020.
nkx3.2 mutant zebrafish accommodate jaw joint loss through a phenocopy of the head shapes of Paleozoic jawless fish.
Journal of Experimental Biology 223: jeb216945.
(download from journal or request pdf from me)

KajiHead.png Palmer, A.R. 2019.
Obituary: Tomonari Kaji (1982-2019), evolutionary morphologist extraordinaire
Journal of Experimental Zoology (Molecular and Developmental Evolution) 332:215-218.
(download from journal or request pdf from me)

CurrBio19.png Goto, R., I. Hirabayashi & A.R. Palmer. 2019.
Remarkably loud snaps during mouth-fighting by a sponge-dwelling worm
Current Biology 29:R603-R622.
(download from journal or request pdf from me)


HeterorhabdusFang.jpg Kaji, T., C. Song, K. Murata, S. Nonaka, K. Ogawa, Y. Kondo, S. Ohtsuka & A.R. Palmer. 2019.
Evolutionary transformation of mouthparts from particle-feeding to piercing carnivory in Viper copepods: Review and 3D analyses of a key innovation using advanced imaging techniques
Frontiers in Zoology 16:35.
(download from journal, Open Access)

(13 cites) Open-Access-logo-sm.png
ChimaeraCrab.jpg Luque, J., R.M. Feldmann, H. Karasawa, C.E. Schweitzer, C.B. Cameron, K.A. Kerr, F.J. Vega, A. Duque, M. Strange, A.R. Palmer & C. Jaramillo. 2019.
Exceptional preservation of mid-Cretaceous marine arthropods and the evolution of novel forms via heterochrony
Science Advances 5:eaav3875.
(download from journal or request pdf from me)

(7 cites)
HagfishMouth.jpg Miyashita, T., M.I. Coates, R. Farrar, P. Larson, P.L. Manning, R.A. Wogelius, N.P. Edwards, J. Anne, U. Bergmann, A.R. Palmer & P.J. Currie. 2019.
Hagfish from the Cretaceous Tethys Sea and a reconciliation of the morphological-molecular conflict in early vertebrate phylogeny
PNAS 116:2146-2151.
(download from journal or request pdf from me)

CeratostomaSculpture.jpg Webster, N.B. & A.R. Palmer. 2019.
How do gastropods grow synchronized shell sculpture? Effect of experimental varix manipulations on shell growth by Ceratostoma foliatum (Muricidae: Ocenebrinae)
Invertebrate Biology 138:74-88.
(download from journal or request pdf from me)


PradoCrab.jpg Prado, L.A.C., Luque, J., I.S. Carvalho, A.M.F. Barreto & A.R. Palmer. 2018.
New brachyuran crabs from the Aptian-Albian Romualdo Formation, Santana Group of Brazil:
Evidence for a tethyan connection to the Araripe Basin
Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 20:160-171.
(download from journal, Open Access)

NucellaRibbing.jpg Webster, N.B. & A.R. Palmer. 2018.
Connecting pattern to process:
How snails grow spiral shell sculpture in Nucella ostrina (Muricidae: Ocenebrinae)
Evolution & Development 20:160-171.
(download from journal or request pdf from me)

NucellaSculpture.jpg Newson, O., R. Basi & A.R. Palmer. 2018.
Lamellose axial shell sculpture reduces gastropod vulnerability to sea star predation
Biological Bulletin 235:24-29.
(download from journal or request pdf from me)

(14 cites)


GraphicalAbstract.png Kaji, T., C.S. Wirkner, A. Anker & A.R. Palmer. 2018.
Parallel saltational evolution of ultrafast movements in snapping shrimp claws
Current Biology 28:106-113.
(download from journal, Open Access)

View full sized video abstract (9min 11 sec, 150 MB) (or view smaller version on Current Biology web site)


Cardisoma.png Luque, J., J.H. Christy, A.J.W. Hendy, M.S. Rosenberg, K.A. Kerr, R.W. Portell & A.R. Palmer. 2017.
Quaternary intertidal and supratidal crabs (Decapoda, Brachyura) from tropical America and the systematic affinities of fossil fiddler crabs
Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 16:12, 1037-1055.
(download from journal or request pdf from me)

Balanus-fusion.jpg Kaji, T. & A.R. Palmer. 2017.
How reversible is development? Contrast between developmentally plastic gain and loss of segments in barnacle feeding legs
Evolution 71:756-765.
(download from journal or request pdf from me)


Alpheus-saxidomus.jpg Palmer, A.R. 2016.
What determines direction of asymmetry: Genes, environment or chance?
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 371:20150417.
(download from journal, Open Access)


Tanaid-Form.jpg Kaji, T., K. Kakui, N. Miyazaki, K. Murata & A.R. Palmer. 2016.
Mesoscale morphology at nanoscale resolution: Serial block-face scanning electron microscopy reveals fine 3D detail of a novel silk spinneret system in a tube-building tanaid crustacean
Frontiers in Zoology 13:14.
(download from journal, Open Access)

  Nucella-shaved.jpg Webster, N. & A.R. Palmer. 2016.
Shaving a shell: Effect of manipulated sculpture and feeding
on shell growth and sculpture development in Nucella lamellosa (Muricidae: Ocenebrinae)
Biological Bulletin 230:1-14.
(download from journal or request pdf from me)

  PollicipesMating.jpg Barazandeh, M. & A.R. Palmer. 2015.
Novel mating modes on wave-swept shores:
Aerial copulation and sperm release in an intertidal stalked barnacle
Marine Biology 162:881-888.
(download from journal or request pdf from me;
view video of Pollicipes mating in air)

  PollicipesPenis.jpg Palmer, A.R. 2014.
Barnacle reproduction
Access Science, McGraw Hill.
(view article or request pdf from me)

CoiledHagfish.jpg Miyashita, T. & A.R. Palmer. 2014.
Handed behavior in hagfish - an ancient vertebrate lineage - and a survey of lateralized behaviors in other invertebrate chordates and elongate vertebrates
Biological Bulletin 226:111-120.
(download from journal or request pdf from me)

  IsolatedBalanus.jpg Barazandeh, M M., C.S. Davis & A.R. Palmer. 2014.
Where even a long penis can't help:
Evidence of long-distance spermcast mating in two acorn barnacles
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 454:49-54.
(download from journal or request pdf from me)

Inside JEB
Science News
Echino Blog
Hanye-PisasterShape2.jpg Hayne, K. & A.R. Palmer. 2013.
Intertidal sea stars (Pisaster ochraceus (Brandt))
alter body shape in response to wave action
Journal of Experimental Biology 216:1717-1725 (DOI: 10.1242/jeb.078964).
(download from journal or request pdf from me)

Nature online
Science News
NatGeo News
(many others)
PollicipesLeaker.jpg Barazandeh, M M., C.S. Davis, C.J. Neufeld, D.W. Coltman & A.R. Palmer. 2013.
Something Darwin didn't know about barnacles:
Spermcast mating in a common stalked species
Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B (DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2012.2919).
(download from journal or request pdf from me)
View more information about this study
  (pictures, videos, extensive media coverage, clever headlines)

  ClawPlasticityFig.jpg Palmer, A.R. 2012.
Developmental plasticity and the origin of novel forms:
Unveiling cryptic genetic variation via "use and disuse"
Journal of Experimental Zoology (Molecular & Developmental Evolution) 318:466479.
(download from journal or request pdf from me)

  AnomalAsym.jpg Palmer, A.R. 2012.
Developmental origins of normal and anomalous random right-left asymmetry:
Lateral inhibition versus developmental error in a threshold trait
Contributions to Zoology 81(2):111-124.
(download from journal or request pdf from me)

Echino Blog Encyclopedia of Life
PateriaArm.jpg Montgomery, E. & A.R. Palmer. 2012.
Effects of body size and shape on locomotion in the bat star (Patiria miniata)
Biological Bulletin 222: 222232.
(download from journal or request pdf from me)

  LearnedAsym.jpg Neufeld, C.* & A.R. Palmer*. 2011.
Learning, developmental plasticity, and the rate of morphological evolution. p. 337-356.
In: Epigenetics: Linking Genotype and Phenotype in Development and Evolution (B. Hallgrimmson & B.K. Hall, eds.) Berkeley, California. University of California Press.
(order book from publisher or request pdf from me.)

  Nucella-MusselBed.jpg Palmer, A.R. (translator) 2011.
History of a mussel bed. Observations on a phase of faunal disequilibrium (English translation of: Fischer-Piette, E. 1935. Histoire d'une Mouliere. Observations sur une phase de desequilibre faunique. Bulletin Biologique de la France et de la Belgique 5:153-177).
In: Essential Naturalist: Timeless Readings in Natural History (Graham, M.H., J. Parker & P.K. Dayton, eds.) University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
(download preprint: 177K)

(66 cites)
Nucella-lam-sm.jpg Neinhuis, S.*, A.R. Palmer* & C. Harley. 2010.
Elevated CO2 affects shell dissolution rate but not calcification rate in a marine snail.
Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 277: 2553-2558.
(download from journal or request pdf from me)

  CaddisflyCase10.jpg Hinchliffe, R.* & A.R. Palmer*. 2010.
Curious coiled cases of caddisfly larvae: Handed behavior, ontogeny and evolution.
Integrative Biology 50(4): 606-618.
(download from journal or request pdf from me)


Neue Zurcher
Die Aquarienzt-
schrift (01/2011)
Illustreret Viden-
skab (05/2011)
KrauseCrabs.jpg Krause-Nehring, J., M.J. Starck & A.R. Palmer. 2010.
Juvenile colour polymorphism in the red rock crab, Cancer productus: Patterns, causes, and possible adaptive significance.
Zoology 113: 131-139.
(download from journal or request pdf from me)

  CichlidHeads10.jpg Palmer, A.R. 2010.
Scale-eating cichlids: From hand(ed) to mouth.
Journal of Biology 9(2):11.
(download from journal- Open Access)

  Rosen, E., B. Schwarz & A.R. Palmer. 2009.
Smelling the difference: Hermit crab responses to predatory and non-predatory crabs.
Animal Behaviour 78: 691-695.
(download from journal or request pdf from me)

New Scientist
CurrBio09.jpg Palmer, A.R. 2009.
Animal Asymmetry.
Current Biology 19 (12): R473-R477.
(download from journal or request pdf from me)

(View F1000)
EdgellPic.png Edgell, T.C., B.R. Lynch, G.C. Trussell & A.R. Palmer. 2009.
Experimental evidence for the rapid evolution of behavioral canalization in natural populations.
American Naturalist 174 (2): 434-440.
(download from journal or request pdf from me)


(View F1000)
NeufeldBarnacle.jpg Neufeld, C. & A.R. Palmer. 2008.
Precisely proportioned: Intertidal barnacles alter penis form to suit coastal wave action.
Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B. 275:1081-1087.
(download from journal or request pdf from me)
(movie of barnacles copulating)

  BergstromFlatfish07.jpg Bergstrom, C.A. & A.R. Palmer. 2007.
Which way to turn? Effect of direction of body asymmetry on turning and prey strike orientation in starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus, Pleuronectidae).
Journal of Fish Biology 71: 737-748.
(download: 393K)

  RypienPic.png Rypien, K.L. & A.R. Palmer. 2007.
The effect of sex, size and habitat on the incidence of puncture wounds in the claws of the porcelain crab Petrolisthes cinctipes (Anomura: Porcellanidae).
Journal of Crustacean Biology 27: 59-64.
(download: 140K)

(95 cites)
BioEss07.jpg Levin, M. & A.R. Palmer. 2007.
Left-right patterning from the inside out: Widespread evidence for intracellular control.
BioEssays 29: 271-287.
(download: 1.1MB)

  Earwigs.jpg Palmer, A.R. 2006.
Caught right-handed. (News & Views)
Nature 444: 689-691.
(download: 604K)

(90 cites)
Evol06.jpg Anker, A., S.T. Ahyong, P.Y. Noel & A.R. Palmer. 2006.
Morphological phylogeny of alpheid shrimps: Parallel preadaptation and the origin of a key morphological innovation - the snapping claw.
Evolution 60: 2507-2528.
(download; includes supplementary information: 4.9MB)

  MarinPic.png Marin, I.N., A. Anker, T.A. Britayev & A.R. Palmer. 2005.
Symbiosis between the alpheid shrimp Athanas ornithorhynchus Banner and Banner, 1973 (Crustacea: Decapoda), and the brittle star Macrophiothrix longipeda (Lamarck, 1816) (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea)
Zoological Studies 44:234-241.
(download: 586K)

  Echiura05.jpg Anker, A., G.-V. Murina, C. Lira, J.A. Vera Caripe, A.R. Palmer & M.-S. Jeng. 2005.
Macrofauna associated with echiuran burrows: A review with new observations on the innkeeper worm Ochetostoma erythrogrammon Leuckart and Ruppel, in Venezuela.
Zoological Studies 44:157-192.
(download: 1.5MB)

  Palmer, A.R. 2005.
Is the ID debate proof of an intelligent deceiver? (letter to editor)
Nature 434:422.
(download: 86K)

  SwallowTails.GIF Palmer, A.R. (posted 2005)
Irregularities in data reported by A.P. Moller
(unpublished MS)
(download: 128K)
(view entire exchange regarding this document on the EvolDir listserv)
Additional questions have also been raised about questionable data from, or conduct by, Anders Moller.

  Palmer, A.R. 2005.
Antisymmetry. pp. 359-397
In: Variation (B. Hallgrimmson & B. K. Hall, eds) Elsevier (order the book or request pdf from me)

Pharyngula Blog
New Scientist
(252 cites)
(View F1000)
SciFig04.jpg Palmer, A.R. 2004.
Symmetry breaking and the evolution of development.
Science 306:828-833.
(download from journal or request pdf from me)
(download supplementary information file; 271K)

  Palmer, A.R. 2004.
Selection for asymmetry. (letter to editor)
Science 306:812.
(download from journal or request pdf from me)

Nature03.jpg Eaves, A.A. & Palmer, A.R. 2003.
Widespread cloning in echinoderm larvae.
Nature 425:146.
(download: 83K)

  Palmer, A.R. 2003.
Reply to Hopkins and Cantalupo: Chimpanzee right-handedness reconsidered - Sampling issues and data presentation.
American Journal of Physical Anthropology 121:382-384.
(download: 55K)

MarchinkoCov03.jpg Marchinko, K.B. & Palmer, A.R. 2003.
Feeding in flow extremes: Dependence of cirrus form on wave-exposure in four barnacle species.
Zoology 106:127-141.
(download: 1,156K)
(download electronic Appendix: 42K)

(337 cites)
AsymGrafs.GIF Palmer, A.R. & C. Strobeck. 2003.
Fluctuating asymmetry analyses revisited.
In Developmental Instability (DI): Causes and Consequences,
M. Polak, ed. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 279-319 (the book may be ordered here).
(download preprint, 236K; download electronic Appendix V, 103K; download data files)

  Palmer, A.R. 2002.
Chimpanzee right-handedness reconsidered: Evaluating the evidence with funnel plots.
American Journal of Physical Anthropology 118:191-199.
(download: 177K)

  PRSL2001.jpg Arsenault, D.J., K.B. Marchinko, & A.R. Palmer. 2001.
Precise tuning of barnacle leg length to coastal wave action.
Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B 268:2149-2154.
(download: 270K)

(243 cites)
SelectReport2.jpg Palmer, A.R. 2000.
Quasireplication and the contract of error: Lessons from sex ratios, heritabilities and fluctuating asymmetry.
Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 31:441-480.
(download: 270K; download data files used for figures)

  Palmer, A.R. & L.M. Hammond. 2000.
The emperor's codpiece: A postmodern perspective on biological asymmetries.
International Society for Behavioral Ecology, Newsletter 12:13-20.
(download: 104K)

  Taylor, G.M., A.R. Palmer & A.C. Barton. 2000.
Variation in safety factors of claws within and among six species of Cancer crabs (Decapoda: Brachyura).
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 70: 37-62.
(download: 251K)

  ClawSF.jpg Palmer, A.R., G.M. Taylor & A.C. Barton. 1999.
Cuticle strength and the size-dependence of safety factors in Cancer crab claws.
Biological Bulletin 196:281-294.
(download: 1549K)

(206 cites)
SelectReport1.jpg Palmer, A.R. 1999.
Detecting publication bias in meta-analyses: A case study of fluctuating asymmetry and sexual selection.
American Naturalist 154: 220-233.
(download: 269K)

  Rowe, L., R.R. Repasky, & A.R. Palmer. 1997.
Condition-dependent symmetry in sexually selected traits: Fluctuating asymmetry or antisymmetry?
Evolution 51:1401-1408.
(download: low resolution, 435K; high resolution, 1.5MB)

  Palmer, A.R. & C. Strobeck. 1997.
Fluctuating asymmetry and developmental stability: Heritability of observable variation vs. heritability of inferred cause.
Journal of Evolutionary Biology 10:39-49.
(download: 834K)

(130 cites)
NucellaPhylog.jpg Collins, T., K. Frazer, A.R. Palmer, G.J. Vermeij, & W.M. Brown. 1996.
Evolutionary history of northern hemisphere Nucella (Gastropoda: Muricacea): Molecular, morphological, ecological and paleontological evidence.
Evolution 50:2287-2304.
(download: low resolution, 978K; high resolution, 3.5MB)

(148 cites)
Palmer, A.R. 1996.
From symmetry to asymmetry: Phylogenetic patterns of asymmetry variation in animals and their evolutionary significance.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 93:14279-14286.
(download: 298K)

  ShrimpClaw.gif Labadie, L.V.* & A.R. Palmer*. 1996.
Pronounced heterochely in the ghost shrimp, Neotrypaea californiensis (Decapoda: Thalassinidea: Callianassidae): Allometry, inferred function and development.
Journal of Zoology (London) 240:659-675.
(download: 562K)

(249 cites)
Palmer, A.R. 1996.
Waltzing with asymmetry.
BioScience 46:518-532.
(download: 3.6MB)


(119 cites)
ClawLmks.GIF Smith, L.D. & A.R. Palmer. 1994.
Effects of manipulated diet on size and performance of brachyuran crab claws.
Science 264:710-712.
(download: low resolution, 231K; high resolution, 801K)

(715 cites)
Palmer, A. R. 1994.
Fluctuating asymmetry analyses: A primer. pp. 335-364.
In: Developmental Instability: Its Origins and Evolutionary Implications. (T. Markow, Ed.). Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
(download: 201K)

  Palmer, A.R. 1994.
Temperature sensitivity, rate of development and generation time: Geographic variation in laboratory-reared Nucella and a cross-phyletic overview.
In: Reproduction and Development of Marine Invertebrates. (W.H. Wilson, S.A. Stricker, G.L. Shinn, Eds.). Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore pp. 177-194.
(download: 616K)

  AntisymDA.gif Palmer, A.R., C. Strobeck, & A.K. Chippindale. 1993.
Bilateral variation and the evolutionary origin of macroscopic asymmetries.
Genetica 89:201-218.
(download: 1.5MB)

  Chippindale, A.K.. & A.R. Palmer. 1993. Persistence of statistical departures from symmetry over multiple molts in individual brachyuran crabs: Relevance to developmental stability.
Genetica 89:185-199.
(download: 1.2MB)

(380 cites)
Palmer, A.R. & C. Strobeck. 1992.
Fluctuating asymmetry as a measure of developmental stability: Implications of non-normal distributions and power of statistical tests.
Acta Zoologica Fennica 191:55-70.
(download: 2.1MB)

(215 cites)
CalcificationGraph.GIF Palmer, A.R. 1992.
Calcification in marine molluscs: How costly is it?
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 89:1379-1382.
(download: low resolution, 253K; high resolution, 905K)

  Palmer, A.R. 1992.
Intraspecific variation in three species of rocky shore gastropods from Hong Kong: Correlations among habitats and a comparison with temperate species.
In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Marine Biological Workshop: The Marine Flora & Fauna of Hong Kong and Southern China. Vol. 1. General Proceedings. (B. Morton, Ed.). Hong Kong University Press pp. 649-691.
(download: 1.4MB)

  Marko, P.B. & A.R. Palmer. 1991.
Responses of a rocky shore gastropod to the effluents of predatory and non-predatory crabs: Avoidance and attraction.
Biological Bulletin 181:363-370.
(download: 828K)

  NucellaHatchling.jpg Palmer, A.R. 1990.
Predator size, prey size, and the scaling of vulnerability: Hatchling gastropods vs. barnacles.
Ecology 71:759-775.
(download: low resolution, 775K; high resolution, 2.8MB)

(183 cites)
Palmer, A.R. 1990.
Effect of crab effluent and scent of damaged conspecifics on feeding, growth, and shell morphology of the Atlantic dogwhelk Nucella lapillus (L.).
Hydrobiologia 193:155-182.
(download: 2.2MB)

  N_ostrina.jpg Palmer, A.R. S.D. Gayron & D.S. Woodruff. 1990.
Reproductive, morphological, and genetic evidence for two cryptic species of Northeastern Pacific Nucella.
Veliger 33:325-338.
(download: 605K)

  Vermeij, G.J., A.R. Palmer & D.R. Lindberg. 1990.
Range limits and dispersal of molluscs in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska.
Veliger 33:346-354.
(download: 437K)

(298 cites)
NucellaSm88.jpg Appleton, R.D.* & A.R. Palmer*. 1988.
Water-borne stimuli released by predatory crabs and damaged prey induce more predator-resistant shells in a marine gastropod.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 85:4387-4391.
(download: low resolution, 305K; high resolution, 1.4MB)

  Palmer, A.R. 1988.
Feeding biology of Ocenebra lurida (Prosobranchia:Muricacea): Diet, predator-prey size relations, and attack behavior.
Veliger 31:192-203.
(download: 625K)

  Hart, M.W. & A.R. Palmer 1987.
Stereotypy, ontogeny and heritability of drill site selection in thaidid gastropods.
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 107:101-120.
(download: 1.7MB)

(1515 cites)
AsymGrafs.GIF Palmer, A.R. & C. Strobeck. 1986.
Fluctuating asymmetry: Measurement, analysis, patterns.
Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 17:391-421.
(download: low resolution, 737K; high resolution, 2.6MB)

[by 2009, this paper was the 9th most highly cited paper of 767 ever published in ARES]


  Palmer, A.R. 1985.
Quantum changes in gastropod shell morphology need not reflect speciation.
Evolution 39(3):699-705.
(download: low resolution, 259K; high resolution, 933K)

  Mercurio, K.S., R.B. Lowell & A.R. Palmer 1985.
Predator-mediated microhabitat partitioning by two species of visually cryptic, intertidal limpets.
Ecology 66:1417-1425.
(download: 386K)

  Palmer, A.R. 1985.
Genetic basis of shell variation in Thais emarginata (Prosobranchia, Muricacea) I. Banding in populations from Vancouver Island.
[now known as Nucella ostrina]
Biological Bulletin 169:638-651.
(download: 386K)

  NucellaMorphs85.jpg Palmer, A.R. 1985.
Adaptive value of shell variation in Thais (or Nucella) lamellosa: Effect of thick shells on vulnerability to and preference by crabs.
Veliger 27:349-356.
(download: 339K)

  Palmer, A.R. 1984.
Prey selection by thaidid gastropods: Some field tests of foraging models.
Oecologia 62:162-172.
(download: 2.0MB)

  NucellaMorphs84.JPG Palmer, A.R. 1984.
Species cohesiveness and genetic control of shell color and form in Thais emarginata (Prosobranchia, Muricacea): Preliminary results.
[now known as Nucella ostrina]
Malacologia 25:477-491.
(download: 490K)

  Palmer, A.R. 1983.
Relative costs of producing skeletal organic matrix versus calcification: Evidence from marine gastropods.
Marine Biology 75:287-292.
(download: 2.3MB)

  Palmer, A.R. 1983.
Growth rate as a measure of food value in thaidid gastropods: Assumptions and implications for prey morphology and distribution.
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 73:95-124.
(download: 2.1MB)

  Tetraclita.jpg Palmer, A.R. 1982.
Predation and parallel evolution: Recurrent parietal plate reduction in balanomorph barnacles.
Paleobiology 8:31-44.
(download: low resolution, 522K; high resolution, 1.9MB)

  Palmer, A.R. J. Szymanska & L. Thomas 1982.
Prolonged withdrawal: A possible predator evasion behavior in Balanus glandula (Crustacea, Cirripedia).
Marine Biology 67:51-55.
(download: 509K)

  Palmer, A.R. 1982.
Growth in marine gastropods: A non-destructive technique for independently measuring shell and body weight.
Malacologia 23:63-73.
(download: 387K)

(125 cites)
Nucella81.jpg Palmer, A.R. 1981.
Do carbonate skeletons limit the rate of body growth?
Nature 292:150-152.
(download: 325K)

  Palmer, A.R. 1981.
Predator errors, foraging in unpredictable environments and risk: The consequences of prey variation in handling time versus net energy
American Naturalist 118:908-915.
(download: 765K)

(129 cites)
ScaleOfSpread.jpg Palmer, A.R. & R.R. Strathmann 1981.
Scale of dispersal in varying environments and its implications for life histories of marine invertebrates.
Oecologia 48:308-318.
(download: 1.3MB)

  Palmer, A.R. 1980.
Locomotion rates and shell form in the Gastropoda: A re-evaluation.
Malacologia 19:289-296.
(download: 215K)

(238 cites)
ShellSpines79.jpg Palmer, A.R. 1979.
Fish predation and the evolution of gastropod shell sculpture: Experimental and geographic evidence.
Evolution 33:697-713.
(download: low resolution, 642K; high resolution, 2.8MB)

  Pehisapo.jpg Paine, R.T. & A.R. Palmer 1978.
Sicyases sanguineus: A unique trophic generalist from the Chilean intertidal zone.
Copeia 1978:75-81.
(download: 520K)

  Ceratostoma.jpg Palmer, A.R. 1977.
Function of shell sculpture in marine gastropods: Hydrodynamic destabilization in Ceratostoma foliatum.
Science 197:1293-1295.
(download: low resolution, 228K; high resolution, 1.2MB)

Computer Programs

NOTE: these programs only run on legacy Macintosh computers (those that can run in "Classic" mode or earlier).

ExCal.GIF, 2K
Palmer, A.R. 1992, 1994. ExCaliper: Captures data from digital calipers onto a Macintosh computer.

MacCoil.GIF, 2K
Palmer, A.R. 1996. MacCoil: Displays wire-frame images of coiled mollusc shells drawn using user-specified ('point-and-click') coiling parameters on a Macintosh computer.

Other Research Resources

  • T.H. Huxley's 'The Crayfish' on-line (a WONDERFUL, turn-of-the-century essay on Zoology for the layman; complete with hot-links to a glossary and copies of the original woodcut figures)

A.R. Palmer Home Page

All text and images accessible via the above links copyright 1996 - 2021 by A. Richard Palmer.
All rights reserved.
(revised March 16, 2021)