Identification Atlas of the Vespidae (Hymenoptera, Aculeata) of the northeastern Nearctic region
Matthias Buck, Stephen A. Marshall, and David K.B. Cheung
Department of Environmental Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1
Nomenclatural note. J.M. Carpenter (in litt.) kindly pointed out to us that “crucifera” is the correct spelling of the species name despite Steyskal’s (1980) suggestion that the name should be emended to “crucifer”. The original spelling “crucifera” should be maintained because it is a latinization of the French word “crucifère”, which can be either an adjective or a noun. As Provancher (1888) did not specify whether the name represented either of the two, it must be treated as a noun in accordance with Article 31.2.2 of the ICZN. The original spelling therefore remains unchanged.
Variation. Fore wing length 7.5–9 mm (♂♂), 9.5–10.5 mm (♀♀). The colour of pale markings varies from yellow to ivory. Inner eye margin in male black, sometimes with pale spot. Female clypeus usually with an arched dorsal mark, rarely interrupted medially, exceptionally just with two small spots, xanthic specimens also with a ventral spot, or clypeus mostly yellow with black central spot and black apical margin. Female scape sometimes with pale basal spot. Postocular spot rarely absent. Pronotal band sometimes with interruption or indentation halfway between median line and pronotal angle. Mesopleuron rarely with a dorsal spot in female. Propodeum in female often with a pair of dorsal pale spots. Apices of femora at most with small pale spot. Tergum 1 rarely with a pair of pale spots. Spots of tergum 2 rarely small or absent in male. Preapical fasciae usually present on terga 1–(5)6 in male and 1–5 in female, in the latter tergum 6 sometimes with a pale spot. Fasciae on corresponding sterna more variable, often only partially developed.
Distribution. Canada: Transcontinental north to 63°N latitude, recorded from YT by Finnamore (1997). We have not seen specimens from NU. Northern and western U.S. south to NJ, KY, NM, CA. Mexico (Krombein 1979). Krombein (1979) recognises five different subspecies, with the ssp. nearcticus Bequaert, 1944 occurring in the northeast.
Biology. Unknown. Other species of Eumenes build jug-like mud nests that are usually attached to twigs and provisioned with caterpillars (Krombein 1979).