Zoology 250 Tree of Life (2017)
Clades for Kingdom PROTISTA



Condensed greatly from Tree of Life 2011 & Pawlowski 2015
for taxa covered in Zool250
(P/B refers to Pearse/Pearse/Buchsbaum/Buchsbaum, 1987,
Living Invertebrates)




                 ==== Chlorophyta (unicell. green algae; Chlamydamonas, Volvox); phytoflagellate
          =Ar*=| =M== Embryophytes (land plants)
          |    |
      =Cp=|    ==M=== Rhodophyta (red algae)
      |   |
      |   =========== Glaucophyta (contain symbiotic cyanobacteria)
      |        ====== "radiolaria" (P/B phyla Acantharia; Heliozoa); actinopod sarcodine
      |  ==Rh*=|
    ==|  |     ====== Foraminifera (P/B phylum Granuloreticulosa); rhizopod sarcodine
    | |  |
    | =C=|      ==N== Ciliophora (Paramecium, Stentor, Spirostoma); the ciliates
    |    |      |
    |    | =Al*=| Cp= Dinoflagellata; phytoflagellate
    |    | |    ==|
  ==|    ==|      === Apicomplexa (Plasmodium); sporozoan
  | |      |
  | |      =St*,M,Cp= STRAMENOPILES (includes diatoms, brown algae, & other taxa)
  | |
  | |   ===D========= Diplomonads (P/B phylum Metamonadida, zooflagellate, Giardia)
  | |   |
1<| =Ex*|    ===Cp=== Euglenida (Euglena); phytoflagellate
  |     ==Eu=|
  |          ======== Kinetoplastida (Trypanosoma); zooflagellate
  |   =Am*=========== AMOEBOZOA (Amoeba, slime molds)
  |   |
  ====|    ===M====== Fungi (mushrooms, molds, yeast, etc.)
      |    |
      =Op*=|     ==== Choanoflagellata; zooflagellate
                   =====B,G,M=================================TO METAZOA===>


1= Eukaryotes: mitosis, membrane-bound organelles including: nucleus, rough endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus?, lysosomes? mitochodria?
Am*= AMOEBOZOA: restricted to the amoebas with lobopodia
Al*= ALVEOLATES: many adjacent sacs or alveoli underlie cell surface; tubular mitochondrial cristae
Ar*= ARCHAEPLASTIDA: share common plastid
B= blastula
C= Chromalveolata (share red-algal plastid)
Ch= choanocyte (monociliated cells with ring of microvilli around flagellum, distinct flagellar vane)
Cp= chloroplast
D= ancient retrotransposon (Burke et al. 2002 Mol. Biol. Evol. 19:619); loss of mitochondrion?
Di= diplosome (microtubular flagellar root)
Ex*= EXCAVATA: most possess a conspicuous 'excavated' ventral feeding groove
Eu= Euglenozoa: 1 or 2 anterior flagella, discoid mitochondrial christae
G= Type IV collagen
M= multicellularity
N= micro- and macro-nucleus; infraciliary system fibril network that coordinates cilia
Op*= OPISTHOKONTA: posterior flagellum on motile cells (a robust clade; see Torruella, G. et al. 2015)
Rh*= RHIZARIA: share many molecular characters
St*= STRAMENOPILES, unique 3-part mastigonemes in flagella

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Copyright (c) 2017 by A. Richard Palmer. All rights reserved.
(revised Dec. 19, 2016)