NARCOTICS

Endorphin ("endogenous opioid peptides")
A term given to any natural internal bodily substance that has opioid-like activity, including the enkephalins (from the Greek word meaning "in the head"). All are small peptide neurotransmitters.

Harrison Narcotic Act
Passed in the USA in 1914, this act restricted opium usage; was extended to include non-narcotics such as cocaine. Replaced in 1970 by the Controlled Substances Act.

Heroin
Diacetylmorphine, converted to morphine and 6-acetylmorphine in the brain.

Laudanum
Name given to various opium preparations, which often contained spices and wine.

Lycoctonine
A toxic alkaloid found in larkspur (Delphinium Sp.)

Morphine
Narcotic analgesic, used to treat the symptoms of dysentery

Opium
Latex-like substance found in the unripened capsule of Papaver somniferum, rich in alkaloids, e.g., morphine, codeine, thebaine, noscapine and papaverine. The opium alkaloids are synthesized from tyrosine and contain an isoquinoline structural unit.

Papaver somniferum
Opium poppy, member of the poppy family (Papaveraceae), a herbaceous annual endemic to the Western Mediterranean.

Sertürner
Purified morphine (1803-1806), called it after Morpheus, the god of dreams

Sydenham
English physician used laudanum as a post-operative relaxant