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test your knowledge of Canada and its fauna
1. What is the surface area of the very
large lakes in Canada, as a percentage of the surface area of the Canadian mainland? answer
2. What is alluvium? answer
3. Name several ways in which insects are
involved in the death of trees in Canadian forests. answer
4. Name some key features by which insects
survive actual body freezing during the Canadian winter. answer
5. Name the food plants of the following
well-known Canadian insects.
Answers to Faunal Quiz
1. The very large lakes in Canada comprise
about 2%, or about 200,000 km2, of the surface of the country.
2. Alluvium is relatively recent detrital
deposits resulting from the operations of modern rivers, including the sediments laid down
in river beds, flood plains, lakes, fans at the foot of mountain slopes, and
3. Insects are involved in the death of
trees especially by single defoliations (which may kill conifers by removing up to five
years of foliage), repeated defoliations (which will kill many deciduous trees), mass
attack of woody tissues (e.g. some bark beetles) and transmission of fatal diseases (e.g.
Dutch Elm Disease by elm bark beetles). In many cases, trees succumb only to a combination
of factors, such as drought or fire damage, plus fungal attack, plus insect attack.
4. In insects that actually freeze during the winter, only part of the total body water is frozen, because water closely associated with biological molecules, for example, does not freeze. The freezing normally is extracellular only. Protection is usually provided to membranes, proteins, and so on by the action of cryoprotectants, typically polyhydric alcohols (such as glycerol) and sugars. Many of the species make nucleators for the winter, ensuring that supercooling will be limited and freezing will take place at relatively sub-freezing temperatures, so that ice formation is not as rapid and injurious as it would be if beginning at lower temperatures.
5. The food plants of these insects are as
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